The lifeblood of a business
Capital is the lifeblood of a business. Without it, wages cannot be paid, supplies of components or ingredients cannot be purchased, operational expenses cannot be met. Without it, risk cannot be monetized or exploited in ways that invite responsible participation of the public and the investment community.
Capital can be sourced from retained earnings or sought from financial markets.
Often, a business must seek finance. In broad terms, there are two kinds: equity and debt. It is important to understand the difference because the consequences and responsibilities implied by each is significantly different. But each offers advantages in the form of equity, income stream, or other forms of risk management including long term investment and short term fund raising.
Equity involves an entity giving money to a business in return for ownership of a part of the business. Typically accomplished by selling shares of the enterprise in exchange for liquidity or capital, this is the principle that drives our stock markets
Debt involves an entity lending money to the business in return for a payment of interest. The two have different risk and return characteristics for both sides of the agreement. This is the backbone of the bond markets, where debt is traded and valuations perceived are influenced by the perceived risk of repayment plus an interest premium based on time and risk.
In the game, equity based finance is raised through a sharemarket and debt based finance is raised through a bond market.
But these same principles can apply to individuals outside the business realm. For example one might raise capital before entering a gambling establishment found via the search for online casino us based on sharing the winnings or losses with the “investors.” The equity model works here.
A bit harder to demonstrate the debt model but here we go: you could issue bonds which pay a fixed return. If you are always a winner at the casino, then the bonds would have a higher price, lower real return. If you lose a lot when you play, the real interest rate would soar, and the price of the bond would collapse. Probably not a good model to use. But then again, what are you doing at the casino with your capital, my friend?